eletrônica para simulação de titulação de mistura de compostos polipróticos .. tampão sobre seu poder tamponante na presença de ácidos ou bases fortes. 1) Qual o pH de uma solução de HCl 0, mol/L? pH= -log[H+]. pH=-log[2 x 10 -3]. pH = – log 2 -(-3). pH = -0,3 + 3 = 2,7. 2) Em uma amostra. 29 mar. Gosto e tato, pratica perigosa! Primeira definição concreta: Ácidos e bases de Arrhenius Ácidos e Bases de Bronsted e Lowry HF + H₂O.

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Ácidos polipróticos (espécies intermediárias)

Rio de Janeiro, Acta, A Figura 5 foi gerada automaticamente no TitGer na pasta ‘Distr. Nova11 How to cite this article.

New York The aim of this paper is to present a simple way of treating the general equation for acid-base titrations based on the concept of degree of dissociation, and to propose a new spreadsheet approach for simulating the titration of mixtures of polyprotic compounds. Fort Worth,p. Two examples for titration of alkalinity and McIlvaine buffer are presented.

Careful consideration of the structure of citric acid can allow us to predict that it is the middle acid group that has the lowest pK a. This is because the hydroxyl group also bonded to the middle carbon is electron-withdrawing by inductionand a negative charge associated with a conjugate base will be stabilized to the greatest extent on the middle carboxylate.


Many biological organic molecules have several potentially ionizable functional groups and thus can be considered polyprotic acids.

Cálculo de pH de disoluciones tampón polipróticos

Services on Demand Journal. Na Figura 2o valor do incremento foi 0,25 mL. A Monte Carlo function for error simulation was also implemented.

The pK a values for any polyprotic acid always get progressively higher, because it becomes increasingly difficult to stabilize the additional electron density that results from each successive proton donation. TitGer – an electronic worksheet for simulating the titration of a mixture of polyprotic species. Notice that in this case, the oxygen, due to its position in the molecule, is not able to exert an electron-donating resonance effect.

Seu algoritmo simples pode ser acompanhado por qualquer leitor interessado no assunto. At pH 7alanine has lost one proton from the carboxylic acid group, and thus is has both a negative and a positive charged group — it is now referred to as a zwitterion.

H 2 PO 4 – is substantially less acidic, because proton donation now results in the formation of an additional negative charge, and a —2 charge is inherently higher in energy than a —1 charge, due to negative-negative electrostatic repulsion. Some amino acids arginine, lysine, aspartate, glutamate, tyrosine, and histidine are triprotic, with a third pK a value associated with the ionizable functional group on the side chain.

Equilíbrio ácido-base by Savina Laís on Prezi

At pH levels above 12, the ammonium group is almost fully deprotonated, and alanine has a negative overall charge. Free amino acids are polyprotic, with pK a values of approximately 2 for the carboxylic acid group and for the amino group. The general expression, without any approximation, is calculated a simple iteration method, making number manipulation easy and painless.


The third deprotonation, with formation of a third negative charge, is harder still. Nova149. Polyprotic acids are capable of donating more than one proton. No caso do TitGer 1. The most important polyprotic acid group from a biological standpoint is the triprotic phosphoric acid.

All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. A planilha TitGer 1.

Este trabalho tem dois objetivos: New York,p. Several graphs are drawn for helping visualizing the titration behavior. H 3 PO 4 is a strong acid because the single negative charge on its conjugate base H 2 PO 4 – can be delocalized over two oxygen atoms.

Alanine is almost fully protonated and positively charged when dissolved in a solution that is buffered to pH 0. Because phosphoric acid has three acidic protons, it also has three pK a values.

Predict the structure of the organic diphosphate compound below in the protonation state where it has a minus 2 charge. We will have more to say about the acidity of phosphate groups in chapter