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Durga is also worshiped in the form of her nine epithets called Navadurga. Durga is depicted chalosa the Hindu pantheon as a Goddess riding a lion or tiger, with many arms each carrying a weapon,  often defeating Mahishasura lit. She is a central deity in Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, where she is equated with the concept of ultimate reality called Brahman.
Durga is revered after spring and autumn harvests, specially during the festival of Navratri. According to Monier Monier-WilliamsDurga is derived from the roots dur difficult and gam pass, go through. The word Durgaand related terms appear in the Vedic literature, such as in the Rigveda hymns 4.
Amba Chalisa Song
The word is also found in ancient post-Vedic Sanskrit texts such as in section 2. For example, Durg is the name of an Asura who had become invincible to gods, and Durga is the goddess who intervenes and slays him. Durga and its derivatives are found in sections 4. There are many epithets for Durga in Shaktism and her nine appellations are Navadurga: A list of names chalissa the goddess are recited in order to worship her and is popularly known as the “Ashtottarshat Namavali of Goddess Durga”.
One of the earliest evidence of reverence for Devi — the feminine nature of God, appears in chapter This hymn is also called the Devi Suktam hymn abridged: I am the Queen, the gatherer-up of treasures, most thoughtful, first of those who merit worship.
Thus gods have established me in many places with many homes to enter and abide in. Through me alone all eat the food that feeds them, — each man who sees, breathes, hears the word outspoken. They know it not, yet I reside in the essence of the Universe.
Hear, one and all, the truth as I declare it. I, verily, myself announce and cualisa the word that gods and men alike shall welcome. I make the man I love exceedingly mighty, make him nourished, a sage, and one who knows Brahman. I bend the bow for Rudra [Shiva], that his arrow may strike, and slay the hater of devotion.
I rouse and order battle for the people, I created Earth cnalisa Heaven and reside as their Inner Controller. On the world’s summit Chaliwa bring forth sky the Father: Thence I pervade all existing creatures, as their Inner Chaliaa Self, and manifest them with my body. I created all worlds at my will, without any higher being, and permeate and dwell within them.
The eternal and infinite consciousness is I, it is my greatness dwelling in everything. Devi’s epithets synonymous with Durga appear in Upanishadic literature, such as Kali in verse 1.
Durga, in her various forms, appears as an independent deity in the Epics period of ancient India, that is amha centuries around the start of the common era. The historian Ramaprasad Chanda stated in that Durga evolved over time in the Indian subcontinent. A primitive form of Durga, according to Chanda, was the result of ” syncretism of a mountain-goddess worshiped by the dwellers of the Himalaya and the Vindhyas “, a deity of the Abhiras conceptualized as a war-goddess.
Durga then transformed into Kali as the personification of the all-destroying time, while aspects of her emerged as the primordial energy Adya Sakti integrated into the samsara cycle of rebirths concept and this idea was built on the foundation of the Vedic religion, mythology and philosophy. Epigraphical evidence indicates that regardless of her origins, Durga is an ancient goddess.
The 6th-century CE inscriptions in early Siddhamatrika script, such as at the Nagarjuni hill cave during the Maukhari era, already mention the legend of her victory over Mahishasura buffalo-hybrid demon. Originally she is Adi Parashaktipresent before creation and after destruction of the entire universe.
She is the ultimate energy but to defeat the Asura Mahishasura all the gods invoked her and as she was present in the form of shakti in all the gods, so she manifested herself from the three gods BrahmaVishnu and Shiva and the other gods. She was gifted with different weapons, ornaments, valuable clothes and gold jewelleries with precious stones and a lion as her mount before going for the war. Some early European accounts refer to a deity known as Deumus, Demus or Deumo.
Western Portuguese sailors first came face to face with the murti of Deumus at Calicut on the Malabar Coast and they concluded it to be the deity of Calicut. Deumus is sometimes interpreted as an aspect of Durga chalida Hindu mythology and sometimes as deva. It is described that the ruler of Calicut Zamorin had a murti of Deumus in his temple inside his royal palace. Durga has been a warrior goddess, and she is ambq to express her martial skills.
Her iconography typically resonates with these attributes, where she rides a lion or a tiger,  has between eight and eighteen hands, each holding a weapon to destroy and create. Her icon shows her in action, yet her face is calm and serene. Durga traditionally holds the weapons of various male gods of Hindu mythology, which they give her to fight the evil forces because they feel that she is the shakti energy, power.
Durga herself is viewed as the “Self” within and the divine mother of all creation.
Archeological discoveries suggest that these iconographic features of Durga became common throughout India by about the 4th century CE, states David Kinsley — a professor of religious studies specializing on Hindu goddesses. Her icons in major Hindu temples such as in Varanasi include relief artworks that show scenes from the Devi Mahatmya.
Ambx appears in Hindu mythology in numerous forms and names, but ultimately all these are different aspects and manifestations of one goddess. She is imagined to be terrifying and destructive when she has to be, but benevolent and nurturing when she needs to be.
Her temples, worship and festivals are particularly popular in eastern and northeastern parts of Indian subcontinent during Durga puja, Dashain and Navaratri. As per Markandya Puran, Durga puja can be performed either for 9 days or 4 days last four in sequence. Since it is ammba during Sharad literally,season of weedsit is called as Sharadiya Durga Puja or Akal-Bodhan to differentiate chalisz from the one celebrated originally in spring. The festival is celebrated by communities by making special colorful images of Durga out of clay,  recitations of Devi Mahatmya text,  prayers and revelry for nine days, after which it is taken out in procession with singing and dancing, then immersed in water.
Amba Chalisa | lyrics (Maa Amba Jagdamba )| Indian Lyrics & Verse
The Durga puja is an occasion of major private and public festivities in the eastern and northeastern states of India. The day of Durga’s victory is celebrated as Vijayadashami Bijoya in BengaliDashain Nepali or Dussehra in Hindi — these words literally mean “the victory on the Tenth day “.
This festival is an old tradition of Hinduism, though it is unclear how and in which century the festival began. Surviving manuscripts from the 14th century provide guidelines for Durga puja, while historical records suggest royalty and wealthy families were sponsoring major Durga puja public festivities since at least the 16th century.
The prominence of Durga puja increased during the British Raj in Bengal. In Nepalthe festival dedicated to Durga is called Dashain sometimes spelled as Dasainwhich literally means “the ten”.
The festival includes animal sacrifice in some communities, as well as the purchase of new clothes and gift giving. Traditionally, the festival is celebrated over 15 days, the first nine-day are spent by the faithful by remembering Durga and her ideas, the tenth day marks Durga’s victory over Mahisura, and the last five days celebrate the victory of good over evil. During the first nine days, nine aspects of Durga known as Navadurga are meditated upon, one by one during the nine-day festival by devout Shakti worshippers.
Durga Puja also includes the worship of Shivawho is Durga’s consort, in addition to LakshmiSaraswatiGanesha and Kartikeyawho are considered to be Durga’s children.
In South India, especially Andhra Pradesh, Dussera Navaratri is also celebrated and the goddess is dressed each day as a different Devi, all considered equivalent but another aspect of Durga. In Bangladeshthe four-day-long Sharadiya Durga Puja is the most important religious festival for the Hindus and celebrated across the country with Vijayadashami being a national holiday.
This tradition has been continued zmba Sri Lankan diaspora. According to Hajime Nakamura, over its history, some Buddhist traditions adopted Vedic and Hindu ideas and symbols. For example, the fierce Vajrayana Buddhist meditational deity Yamantakaalso known as Vajrabhairava, developed from the pre-Buddhist god of death, Yama. The Sacciya mata found in major medieval era Jain temples mirrors Durga, and she has been identified by Jainism scholars to be the same or sharing a more ancient common lineage.
However, she is not shown as killing the buffalo chaljsa in the Jain cave, but she is presented as a peaceful deity. Durga is exalted as the divine in Dasam Grantha sacred text of Sikhism that is traditionally attributed to Guru Gobind Chaliea. Archeological site excavations in Indonesiaparticularly on the island of Java, have yielded numerous statues of Durga.
These chalias been dated to be from 6th century onwards. In Cambodiaduring its era of Hindu kings, Durga was popular and numerous chakisa of her have been found.
However, most differ from the Indian representation in one detail. The Cambodian Durga iconography shows her standing on top of the cut buffalo demon head.
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Durga statues have been discovered at stone temples and archeological sites in Vietnamlikely related to Champa or Cham dynasty era. Durga is a major goddess in Hinduism, and the inspiration of Durga Puja chslisa a large annual festival particularly in the eastern and northeastern states chaliza India. Every village, town and city Goddess is her form if not a form of Laxmi. She is worshiped as Kamakshi in Tamil Nadu. He is the founder of the Ramakrishna Mission. Durga as the mother goddess is the inspiration behind the song Vande Mataramwritten by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, during Indian independence movementlater the official national song of India.
Durga is present in Indian Nationalism where Bharat Mata i. Mother India is viewed as ajba form of Durga. This is completely secular and keeping in line with the ancient ideology of Durga as Mother and protector to Indians. She is present in pop culture and blockbuster Bollywood movies like Jai Santoshi Maa. Any woman who takes up a cause to fight for goodness and justice is said to have the spirit of Durga in her.
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For other uses of “Durga”, see Durga disambiguation. A sketch of Durga as buffalo-demon slayer from a 6th century Aihole Chalisq temple; Right: Durga worship with drum beats. Hinduism portal Hindu mythology portal Indian religions portal India portal. Griffith Translator ; for Sanskrit original see: Reclaiming the Tradition of the Mother of the Universe. Is the Goddess a Feminist?: The Politics of South Asian Goddesses. New York University Press. Anba of California Press. Diaspora of the Gods: