Brief summary. No one has contributed a brief summary to this page yet. Explore what EOL knows about Caesalpinia ebano. Add a brief summary to this page. Biological inoculation and organic amendments as strategies to improve ebony ( Caesalpinia ebano) tree-seedling growth at the nursery. Inoculación biológica y. Caesalpinia ebano H. Karst. Search in The Plant List Search in IPNI Search in Australian Plant Name Index Search in NYBG Virtual Herbarium Search in.
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Biological inoculation and organic amendments as strategies to improve ebony Caesalpinia ebano tree-seedling growth at the nursery. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. An experiment was established with the aim of evaluating the effects of individual and combined addition of organic amendments and microbial inoculation on ebony Caesalpilinia ebano plant growth at nursery. As a reference an uninoculated-and-unamended control was caesalppinia in this study.
The experimental design was completely random, each treatment had 12 replicates. The results indicated that the addition of organic amendments promoted plant growth significantly.
However, these effects depended on the type and dose in favor of RV. On the other hand, the inoculation with microorganisms did not have effect on plant growth. The effects were explained cxesalpinia a function of nutrient availability improvement in the substrate with organic amendments and apparently due to a low mycorrhizal dependence of ebony. This paper supports the alternative use of organic amendment generated in the city for improving plant nutrition caesalpnia growth in urban silviculture.
Sin embargo, los efectos dependieron del tipo y la dosis empleada, a favor de los RV. Trees, shrubs, and garden plants provide valuable environmental services such as reducing wind speed and creating cassalpinia barriers; they also give beauty to the environment and contribute to society with biodiversity and property enhancement.
They regulate as well the temperature creating microclimatic effects, reduce air pollutants and contribute to reduce crime and violence Garvin et al. Recent municipal administrations of Medellin have realized the caesalpjnia of maintaining woodland and gardens of the city, and have allocated financial resources for its establishment and care AMVA, One alternative for this maintenance is the use of organic waste in the city as fertilizer and plant substrate Medina,which represents a viable option not only for the disposal of these materials, but also to prolong landfills useful life.
Unfortunately, despite their importance, there is little forestry management in the city and most of urban cesalpinia nutrients that are essential for plant growth are not found in sufficient concentrations to meet their needs Pedrol et al. Cities generate various types of organic waste such as pruning, tree felling, grass cutting, bio solids from sewage treatment ebwno and various types of manure as the ones generated in animal welfare centers and livestock markets, if they are not properly managed they will end up in landfills.
All this without counting the t of biosolids per month from San Fernando residual water treatment plant EPM, In addition, it is expected that another t per month are generated when the new plant in Bello comes into operations Gualdron, Disposing these materials prevents their use, and thus generate large volumes for final disposal that are improperly deposited in different sites, increasing pollution in cities Cofie and Veenhuizen, It is worth to mention that all caesalipnia amendment should ebajo stabilized or composted in order to reduce potential risks of pathogen populations e.
Caesalpjnia and Brinton, These kind of microorganisms can be replaced by decomposers Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Streptomyces, Aspergillusand Penicillum that help to release nutrients into the soil solution for plant roots.
Fertilization is one of the most important aspects in early stages of plant growth, and that is why guidelines are needed for tree seedling production, so they contribute to the reduction of mortality of planted individuals and improve the process of adaptation in planting sites Oliet et al.
This could also result in a satisfactory plant growth and increased resistance to pests and diseases Veresoglou et al. Organic waste could be used alternatively to synthetic fertilizers traditionally used for the production of forest species in nurseries Ostos et al.
These could represent, through previous conditioning processes, environment friendly bio inputs that benefit the plant nutrition management of species used in urban forestry activities, and also prevent its disposal in landfills Veijalainen et al. Ebony Caesalpilinia ebano is one of the tree species with a high potential in urban silviculture given its rapid growth, urban environment adaptability, an esthetical appeal Arroyave et al.
Caesalpinia ebano H.Karst. (En Peligro) – Fabaceae
On the other hand, the use of microorganisms capable of solubilizing minerals and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to promote plant growth of forestry species has been recently studied with promissing results Diez et al. These microorganisms act in consortium, the former help to dissolve native or applied minerals phosphate rock, magnesium silicate, among others improving the availability of nutrients; while mycorrhizal fungi are an extension of the root system that improves the plant’s ability to extract water and nutrients from the soil Osorio, Xaesalpinia the results in other tree species used in silviculture have been possitive and in some there is not responses, it is not clear if these microorganisms can promote the growth of ebony.
The hypothesis in this study was that the effect of the organic waste addition and biological inoculation with soil fungi an arbucular mycorrhizal fungus and a mineral-solubilizing fungus in nursery plants may be controlled by the material type and dosage. Thus, in this work the objective was to evaluate the effect of individual and combined addition of organic amendments various types and doses and a microbial inoculant R.
Rainfall pattern is bimodal with two dry and two wet periods during the annual cycle. The soil was air dried and then sterilized using Metalaxyl-M and chlorothalonil at the concentration of 1 g L A subsample was taken for physico-chemical analysis in the Laboratory of Soils at the Faculty of Sciences of Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Medellin.
The results were as follows: Details of the method are available in Westerman One caesslpinia of sand and another of rice husk were added to every two caesalpinai of this soil sample to improve water infiltration and drainage. Three organic amendments composted from different sources were used: The seeds were supplied by the nursery of the Foundation Botanical Garden of Medellin. Two seeds were planted per bag and when the seedlings reached 10 cm in height, and a month later, ebank of them was removed.
The inoculum used was a mixture of forming arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizoglomus fasciculatum. The mycorhizal fungus was multiplied in maize roots grown in a substrate composed by soil and sand 4: Chemical analysis of the substrate, treated or not with organic amendments Table 1. All nursery practices were performed in the conventional way that the nursery of the Botanical Garden has in its production.
Caesalpinia ebano – Wikidata
After a growth period of days it was measured: The experimental design was completely random; the treatments were a factorial arrangement of 7×2. Each treatment had 12 replicates. After the organic matter addition to the growth medium of the plants, the resulting increase in the amount of nutrients was remarkable Table 1. For example, in the unamended control the P content was 2. The addition of these organic amendments rich in nutrients raised pH and electrical conductivity relative to unamended control; comparable increases were detected with Ca, K, and micronutrients, particularly boron.
An additional worth to mention is the corrective effect of the organic amendment on the exchangeable cation ratios in soil used as substrate see control in Table 1which affects plant performance Pedrol et al. These effects are comparable to those reported by several authors Pedrol et al. It is clear that the excess of soil exchangeable Mg can inhibit the plant K uptake Pedrol et al. Results indicate that treatments had a significant effect on the variables studied in C.
Leaf phosphorus concentration was not significantly affected by treatments. No significant effects were detected with interaction amendment x inoculum. The improvement in the nutrient availability and the nutrient ratios certainly explains why plants grew better when organic amendments were applied. In fact, at the end of growth period, control plants exhibited an average height of Perrinaza treated plants increased height cwesalpinia 2.
On the other hand, plants grown in substrate with bio solids had even greater caesalpnia, with increases ranging between 3.
Caesalpinia ebano — The Plant List
The addition of composted ebanp residues also generated significant effects on height, that is, with RV20 the effect was 2. There were significant differences between them. At the end of the days experiment control plants had a shoot dry mass of 0.
As well as height, plants belonging to treatments with amendments had significantly more shoot dry mass than the others Figure 2. Cesalpinia mass of plants with P20 was 4. Despite the benefits that derive from the improvement of substrate fertility with the evaluated amendments, it is clear that the best growth was not obtained with the amendment cesalpinia supplied more nutrients biosolids ; perhaps this, in the used dose, generated an excess of nutrients that may have generated nutritional imbalances see boron with very high values: Although treatments with bio solid amendment obtained a higher dry mass than control 6.
It is very likely that lower doses increase as good as those obtained with P and RV. At this dose increases in substrate fertility cafsalpinia were more moderate, particularly in P and B.
In future studies it is recommended to explore the effects that lower doses may have on plant performance. By analyzing leaf phosphorus of C.
It is worth to mention that the value of organic amendments to improve soil fertility is not only associated to their caesal;inia composition, but also due to the presence of active microorganisms. They have the ability of solubilize nutrients via enzymes proteases, phosphatases, sulfatases, etc. It is clear that when the cqesalpinia are suppressed in these organic amendment their effectiveness is reduced; this has been observed when the material is treated with fumigants as reported by Osorio et al.
Contrarily, the organic amendments can also carry pathogenic microorganisms that have potential hazard on human, animal and plants. However, this may be prevented when these material are treated by composting as occurred in this study with all materials P, RV, and B. On the other hand, mycorrhizal colonization had no significant effects between treatments, nor versus control. In addition, all levels of colonization were low. Results did not allow testing caesalplnia effects when using the inoculum.
It caesalpiniq clear that roots had ebnao very low mycorrhizal colonization. This may be due to at least two factors: In the first case, with the addition of organic amendments as biosolids and perrinaza the nutrient availability in the substrate was elevated, especially P, and control treatments exhibited low nutrient content, these two being unfavorable factors for mycorrhizal activity Osorio, In the second case, it is important to clarify that the degree of mycorrhizal dependency of this plant species is not known yet.
However, it can be stated that C.
In this way, Zangaro et al. Species of this type are common in the later succession stages and the climax species. As the successional proceeds plant species involved have less mycorrhizal dependency eban are independent of this association Siqueira et al.
In contrast, plant species that correspond to initial stages of the succession called pioneering or early successional plants have high mycorrhizal dependency; lighter and more porous wood. For example, Acacia mangium, Leucaena leucocephala and Jacaranda mimosifolia are pioneer species and exhibit high mycorrhizal dependency Habte and Manjunath, ; Habte and Soedarjo, It is worth noting that in some cases mycorrhizal association does not necessarily stimulate the growth of these pioneer species, but favors their survival Guadarrama et al.
Organic amendments used in this work were effective in promoting nutrient availability in the substrate, plant nutrition and growth of C. Thus, these materials can be exploited and prevent improper disposal in landfills.
In this way, it could determine greater efficiency in processes associated with the biogeochemical cycle. Agrononomia Mesoamericana 25 2: Eban F and Hoyos CL eds. Cofie O and Veenhuizen R. Revista Agricultura Urbana