Casuarina junghuhniana. Family Name: Casuarinaceae. Common Names: Mountain Ru, Red-tipped Ru, Horsetail Tree, Ru Ronan. Mountain Ru,Red- tipped. Casuarina junghuhniana. Casuarinaceae. Miq. LOCAL NAMES. Chinese (shan di mu ma huang); English (she oak,red-tipped ru,mountain ru,forest oak);. Casuarina junghuhniana. Authority, Miq. Family, Magnoliopsida:Hamamelidae: Casuarinales:Casuarinaceae. Synonyms. Common names. Editor. Ecocrop code .
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It is an environmentally important nitrogen-fxing tree, hosting the actinorhiza Frankia. A casuarjna hybrid with C. With domestication its utility could be enhanced. The crown of jemara is reasonably open and consists of numerous long deciduous branchlets bearing reduced scale leaves. It is dioecious; individual trees are carry either male or female flowers.
Male flowers are borne on the tips of deciduous branchlets and female “cones ” in the axils of scale “leaves ” on permanent shoots. This species grows rapidly with a strong apical dominance. It has the capacity to produce vigorous root suckers and female trees seed abundantly.
The taxonomy of C junghuhniana is very confused and requires revision. Currently the species is considered to consist of two subspecies. A subspecies tentatively called junthuhniana occurs on Timor, Wetar, Sumba and perhaps Sumbawa, Indonesia.
Variation within each subspecies funkier complicates the subgroupings. The subspecies junghuhniana consists of discrete populations having coarse, fine, and intermediate textured deciduous branchlets but the patterns of variation are currently unresolved. The coarse forms may be related to tree growth on exposed sites.
The coarse form is notable for its rugged, deeply furrowed, corky bark which is unusual for a casuarina. Subspecies timorensis on Timor is also thought to consist of two forms which the locals term “white” and “black” casuarinas.
The hillside form has long, robust deciduous branchlets which in the riverine form are short and thin. Provenance trials of this casuarina have not been conducted. Environmental variation in natural habitat, however, suggests that considerable genetic variation is present. Casuarina junghuhniana is wholely tropical in distribution, and is a native of highlands in Indonesia where it pioneers deforested lands such as screes rocky slopes and grasslands, and in disturbed areas it replaces mixed mountain forest plant communities NAS Subspecies junghuhniana typically grows in extensive pure stands on volcanic slopes between altitudes of to m but can also occur below m.
Subspecies timorensis is normally found at lower altitudes, especially in Timor where it grows from near sea level to m. Rainfall in its natural habitat is monsoonal with a well-defined summer maximum and a range of mm NAS C jungilahniana often forms pure stands in dry and periodically burnedover areas.
It is also found along gravelly stream beds in Timor. Once trees reach a few meters in height they are fire resistant and have good sprouting ability if fire damaged. C junghuhniana grows in a wide range of soils from volcanic, sandy to compact clay soil and including very acidic sites, pH 2.
It also appears well-adapted to growing on alkaline soils in Timor Turnbull pers. It can tolerate waterlogging up to days Verhoef It is considered moderate NAS to very Djogo drought resistant and is especially good as a pioneer on landslide-prone soils Djogo In Timor it commonly grows on limestonederived soils. As with other casuarinas, wood of C junghuhniana is highly suitable for fuelwood and charcoal production.
Forestry :: Casuarina junghuhniana
C junghuhniana is especially suitable for wind breaks and for ornamental plantings. It is not used as fodder. It has been used in revegetation and land rehabilitation projects in Java for nearly a century. In Thailand its straight-stemmed character makes it a popular underground pile for construction work as well as for fishtrap stakes. It is grown on farm boundaries for pole production in Kenya and Tanzania.
No special pretreatment is needed to germinate seed. Like most casuarinas, seed probably loses viability quickly unless kept in dry, cold storage. In Indonesia, Kenya and Tanzania all C. In Thailand and India planting stock is raised by vegetative propagation because only male trees were originally introduced.
Casuarina junghuhniana (PROSEA) – PlantUse English
Airlayering has been tried but with little success. The most successful method for production on a large scale was developed in Thailand.
Stem cuttings of young shoots are placed in small pots filled with soil and river sand. Several pots are enclosed in polyethylene bags with tops supported by a stake. Rooting hormone IBA is necessary to promote rooting. Mahmood and Possuswam also report successful root cuttings of shoots and root suckers of this casuarina in India. C junghuhniana has the casuatina to grow very quickly. In irrigated plantations in Thailand it can attain 21 m height and 15 cm diameter at 5 years.
Growth is normally slower without irrigation. In Markhanam, Madras, India trees reach 5 m tall at 20 months after planting Thirawat casjarina There appear to be no serious insect pests of C junghuhniana.
In East lava forests of C junghuhniana have been attacked by caterpillars but the trees recovered even after repeated defoliations. Defoliation of C junghuhniana plantations by a locust Aulaches miliaris during rainy season has also been reported in Thailand.
Young trees died but older trees suffered only a temporary setback. Also reported from Thailand was minor damage to young shoots by junghuhhniana insect identified as Aristobia approxirmator in plantations Chittachumnonk In dry areas subterranean termites can destroy young plants by attacking their roots. Silviculture of Jungguhniana junghuhniana in Thailand.
Johnston edsCauarina ecology, management and utilization. Wood property and potential uses of 14 fast-growing tree species.
The possibilities of using local drought resistant and multipurpose tree species as alternatives to lamtoro Leucaena leucocephala for agroforestry and social forestry in West Timor. Propagation of Casuarina junghuhniana by planting shoots and root suckers. Indian Forester 4: Nitrogen fixing trees for adverse sites. National Academy Press, Washington, D.
Note on Casuarina junghuhniana with special reference to its experimental casuafina into India. Indian Forester 79 Root studies in the tropics. Further data about the oxygen requirements of the root system. Nitrogen Fixing Trees highlights Acacia koa – Hawaii’s most valued native tree Acacia leucophloea – shade and fodder for livestock in arid environments Alnus acuminata: NFT for beauty, food, fodder and soil improvement Acacia aneura – a desert fodder tree.