Available online at CURCUMA CAESIA ROXB. AND IT’S MEDICINAL. USES: A REVIEW. Sonjit Das, ProdyutMondal and Md. Kamaruz Zaman*. PDF | On Apr 19, , Sonjit Das and others published CURCUMA CAESIA ROXB. AND IT’S MEDICINAL USES: A REVIEW. Black turmeric is known to have certain medicinal values. The curcumin content when I read certain papers, It was very low ~ %. Now I am wondering.

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The rhizomes of Curcuma caesia Roxb. Considering the importance of natural products in modern phytomedicine, the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of C. The ethanolic caseia showed highest antioxidant activity by DPPH assay Based on the antioxidant activity, three of the rhizome extracts were evaluated for their antimutagenic properties against indirect acting mutagen cyclophosphamide CP using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA All the extracts showed similar antimutagenicity in dose dependent manner.

Curcuma caesia – Black Turmeric

The total phenolic content as well as reducing ability of the extracts was also determined. The emerging concepts of cancer is that the cancer cells are curccuma and its unstability is brought about by the documentations of cascade of mutations caused by mutagens and suggested that mutagenesis drives out tumour progression [1]. Mutations results from the side effects of free radicals such as hydrogen peroxides, superoxide anions, and organo peroxides, etc. The interaction of the free radicals with polyunsaturated fatty acids, nucleotides and disulphide bonds [5] has been implicated as the major factor to cause the oxidation of the biological compounds and eventually leads to mutations [6] and many degenarative diseases like emphysema, cardiovascular, inflammatory diseases, cataracts, etc.

Cellular system has developed many endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase SODcatalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidases and reductase, and nonenzymatic antioxidants like vitamin E tocopherols and tocotrienolsvitamin C, etc.


This has triggered to search for effective antioxidant agents from various sources including plants. Many researchers have investigated that the increase levels of antioxidants present in plants are believed to decrease the oxidative damage and its harmful effects [9].

Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene BHTbutylated hydroxyanisole BHA are preferable but can cause serious ill effects in human health as per recent reports Lobo et al.

Also the plants are rich source of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolics, carotenoids, coumarins, anthraquinones, tannins, terpenoids, saponins that play a prominent role in inhibiting human carcinogenesis and repair the cell mutations [15]. It is recognised as a medicinal herb to possess with various properties such as anti-fungal activity Banerjee and Nigam [16]smooth muscle relaxant and anti-asthmatic activity Arulmozhi et al.

The phytochemical studies of C. To the best of our knowledge there is no report available on the antimutagenic activity of C. Therefore we have selected the rhizome of this plant and evaluated the antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of some of the selected extracts against indirectly acting mutagen cyclophosphamide. The rhizomes were cut into pieces and sun dried.

The crude extracts of each solvent were dried in water bath and kept for further uses. The quenching of free radical activity of different extracts were determined by spectrophotometric method against 2,2-diphenylpicryl hydrazyl DPPH following [25].

The radical scavenging activity was calculated using the following formula:. The concentration of phenolics in plant extracts was determined using Folin Ciocalteau method [26] with little modifications. The reaction mixture was prepared by mixing 0. Blank was prepared, containing 0. The samples were prepared in triplicate for each analysis and the mean value of absorbance was curcua.


The same procedure was repeated for the standard solution of gallic acid and the calibration line was constructed. The ability to reduce ferric ions to ferrous ions by the antioxidants present in rhizomes of C. Increase in the absorbance values shows the increasing reducing ability of the extracts.

The entire test was performed in triplicate. The genotypes of the test strains were checked routinely for their histidine requirement, rfa mutatios, UV sensitivity uvrB mutation. S9 is the mitochondrial enzyme mix required for metabolic activation of indirect acting mutagens like cyclophosphamide.

S9 mix was prepared fresh for each assay. The resulting complete mixture was poured on minimal agar plates prepared as described by Maron and Ames [28]. For the experiment with S9 mix, 0.

The experiment was performed as mentioned xaesia. Percentage inhibition was calculated using the formula [29]. The results are presented as the average and S. Student’s t test was performed to compare the mean values with the positive control. The free radical scavenging activity of the rhizome extracts of C. The fractions showed a varied free radical scavenging activity.

Curcuma caesia

The ethanol fraction was found to be the most active free radical scavenger exhibited Likewise the crude methanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extract showed scavenging activity with a percent decrease of The total phenolic contents in the examined plant extracts using the Folin Cioclteu’s reagent is expressed in terms of gallic acid equivalent the standard curve: The highest concentration of curcuna was measured in ethanolic followed by methanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts.

The reducing xaesia of C.

Reducing power methods indirectly evaluates the antioxidant activity Qureshi et al. The increase in the absorbance caesiq an increase in reductive ability [30].

Based on the promising antioxidant and reducing activity, ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated for their antimutagenic activity by Ames test against indirect acting mutagen cyclophosphamide.

All the caesis were found to inhibit in dose dependent manner. Similar trend was followed for methanoilc extract of C. Curfuma attention has been focussed in recent years on the exploration of phytotherapeutic agents for the treatment of oxidative stress and mutation related disorders. The ckrcuma of medicinal plants is perhaps the oldest method of coping with illness. They can be easily metabolised inside the body without any harmful effects that leads to the phytochemical based remedies [31][32][33][34].

Reactive oxygen intermediates like superoxides, hydrogen peroxides and hydroxyl radicals are known to mediate macromolecular damages by reacting with nucleic acids, proteins as well as various membrane components thus act as direct and indirect initiators of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis [35].

On the basis of this it has been hypothesised that the involvement of antioxidant might be considered as the safest approach in the prevention of process leading to mutagenesis. The chemistry of free radicals is complicated and it caused a major limitation in the identification of free radical scavenging activity. To withstand this problem the potential antioxidant substance are tested in in vitro model and such approaches expand the scope of antioxidant activity.

The mechanism that contributes to the antioxidant capacity of phenols and flavanoids include free radical scavenging ability, caeesia or electron donation ability, chelation of redox active metals ions, modulation of gene expression and interaction with the cell signalling pathways [36].

Therefore, we have examined the rhizome extracts of C. The use of DPPH assay provides an easy and a rapid way to evaluate antioxidants by spectrophotometer [37]. The purple colour of DPPH reduces to light yellow with the intervention of plant extract; the most probable mechanism of action was hydrogen donation by the extracts [38].


In fact, the tested extracts are the complex mixtures of several compounds, particularly phenolic compounds which have diverse chemical structures that determine various properties.

Rich source of phenolics are of increasing interest nowadays because they retard the oxidative degradation of bio molecules [39]. The chemical curccuma of phenolic compound which has hydroxyl group attached to benzene ring in its structure provides them the ability to act as free radical scavenger [40]. When reactive oxygen species are present at a certain concentration the bond between O and H is broken.

The released hydrogen ion is made available to nucleophilic radicals which subsequently quenched their free radicals [42]. The phenol content of the C. Literature reviews of Sarangthem and Haokip [41] also confirms that maximum curcuminoids, oil content, flavonoids, phenolics, different important amino acids, protein and high alkaloids are contained in the rhizome of this species.

Antioxidants have been reported to act as scavengers of singlet oxygen and free radicals in biological systems [42][43]. They have been found to exert antioxidant activity by breaking the free radical chains by donating a hydrogen atom [45].

The reducing power of extracts of C. The antioxidant properties of phytochemicals are linked to their ability to scavenge free radicals generated either endogenously or by exogenous agents.

Curcuma caesia – Wikipedia

These preventive agents can inhibit the mutation and cancer initiation process by modulating phase I and phase II enzymes, by blocking reactive species either by scavenging, electron donation or through chelation and thus maintains the DNA structure.

The inhibition of mutagenesis are grouped into two namely desmutagens and bioantimutagens. It has been hypothesised that bioantimutagens act as second stage inhibitors that blocks the mutagen before they could attack the DNA [46] and bioantimutagenic effect of phytochemicals is determined in co incubation method [47].

The different extracts of C. The results were based on the number of induced revertant colonies detected. According to Ames et al. Earlier Morffi et al. Higher mutagenicity was found when CP was activated with S9 but inhibition of this microsomal activity was observed in the presence of rhizome extract.

The present results showed the antimutagenic activity in Ames test that may be attributed in part to powerful radical scavenger associated with the extract.

According to Negi et al. Ethanolic extract reduces the mutagenicity caused by indirect acting mutagen cyclophosphamide by From the results it was found that all the extracts showed strong effective antimutagenicity against cyclophosphamide. In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that C.

Further studies are needed to isolate the active principles present in it. The present work supported the increasing evidence that the rhizome extract of C. The authors have no conflict of interest to this reputed journal.

The authors thank Plant Biotechnology Lab, Department of Biotechnology, Assam University, Silchar for providing all the equipments for this research project. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Cqesia Rep v. Published online Jan Heisanam Pushparani DeviP. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Abstract The rhizomes of Curcuma caesia Roxb. Chemical compounds studied in this article: Introduction The emerging concepts of cancer is that the cancer cells are unstable and its unstability is brought about by the documentations of cascade of mutations caused by mutagens and suggested caesla mutagenesis drives out tumour progression [1].

Materials and methods 2.