ENCIKLOPEDIJA BRITANIKA NA SRPSKOM PDF

Iz Wikipedije, slobodne enciklopedije. Idi na navigaciju Idi na pretragu. Britanski kralj George VI i kraljica Elizabeta se voze kočijom za vrijeme posjeta Kanadi. Enciklopedija Britanika letters of that period (F. Miklosich’s Monumenta Serbica, Putsich’s Srpski Spomenitsi u Dubrovachkoy Arkhivi. skola/_Radna-sveska-uz-GRAMATIKUzarazred-srpski-jezik- KLETT :// Monografija -i-atlasi/_Enciklopedija-BritanikaJ-L-sazeto-izdanje daily

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Strana 10 od 15 Prva Poslednja Skok na stranu: Prikazujem rezultate do od Demokratski izabrani koordinator istoriografske revolucije na Slovenskom Jugu.

Srbistika Enciklopedija Britanika http: Servian-Slavonic Literature The only noteworthy literary productions of this first period of Servian literature were zhivoti biographies and sepskom chronicles. The most important literary work of St Sava d. Domentiyan wrote a life of St Sava in the involved and bombastic Byzantine style of the middle of the 13th century. The chronicles letopisi are without any literary value, although as historical material they are srpsklm.

They number about thirty.

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The oldest of them was written between and The best are Letopis of Ypek, which ends with the year ; Letopis of Koporin, written by Deacon Damyan in 1 ; Letopis of Carlovitz, ; and the chronicle of the monastery of Tronosha, To this period of Servian literature belongs the first attempt by an unknown author to write a romance.

The story of the love and sufferings of the Servian prince Vladimir, who lived in the 11th century, and his wife, the Bulgarian princess Kossara, written probably in the 13th century, was very popular among the Servians.

A characteristic example of the literary and also, as it appears, of the official language of the Servians in the middle ages is the Codex of Tsar Dushan Zakonik Tsara Dushanawhich was promulgated at the Servian parliament Sabor in Skoplye Uskiib in and 1 Very interesting material for the study of the Servian literary language during the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries is to be found in several collections of old charters and letters of that period F.

The oldest document written in the vernacular Servian is considered to be a charter by which Kulin, the ban of Bosnia, grants certain commercial privileges to the Ragusan merchants in The oldest printed book in Servian-Slavonic issued in from the printing-press of Andreas de Theresanis de Asula in Venice. A few years later the Servian nobleman Bozhidar Vukovich bought a printing-press in Venice and established it at Obod in Montenegro, from which issued in the first church book the Octoich printed on Servian territory.

There is a copy of this book in the British Museum. Vicentius, the son of Bozhidar Vukovich, carried on the enterprise of his father, and their printing-press continued to work up toissuing several church books in the Servian-Slavonic language.

During the first half of the 16th century the Servians had printing-presses in Belgrade, Skadar Scutari on the river Boyana, Gorazhde, Mileshevo and elsewhere. But in the second half of that century all printing absolutely ceased in the Servian countries under the direct rule of the Turks, and was not resumed until the middle of the 18th century.

Books for the use of the churches had to be imported from Russia, printed in the Russian-Slavonic language. Dalmatian Literature While among the Servians belonging to the Eastern Church all literary work had practically stopped from the middle of the r 6th century to the middle of the 18th, the Roman Catholic Servians of Dalmatia, and more especially those of the semi-independent republic of Ragusa, became more active.

Being for centuries politically, ecclesiastically and commercially connected with Venice, Rome and Italy in general, they came under. The awakening of literary ambition among these Servians of the Adriatic coast was originally due to the influence of immigrant Greek scholars who came to Ragusa after the fall of Constantinople in Between and there had already been founded in Spalato a small literary society, in which the Servian poets Marulich, Papalich, Martinich and others read their poetical compositions, mostly lyrical and religious songs.

About the same time there appeared in Ragusa the poet Menchetich, who wrote nearly four hundred love-songs and elegies, taking Ovid as his model, and George Drzhichauthor of many erotic poems and of a drama.

Two of the finest works of this early period of the Servian literature of Ragusa are the poem Dervishiyada, written by the Ragusan nobleman Stepan Guchetichrich in humour and satire, and the poem Yegyupka ” The Gipsy Woman “written by Andreas Chubranovicha goldsmith by profession and a very original and clever lyrical poet.

Another remarkable Ragusan poet was Hectorovichwho wrote the poem Ribanye ” The Fishing and Talking with Fishermen “and anticipated a new movement in Servian literature by publishing three national songs as he heard them from the popular bards guslars.

But the true glory of Ragusan literature was established by its three poets, Ivan GundulichGyon Palmotich and Ignacius Gyorgyich Of these the greatest was Gundulich q.

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Palmotich is remarkable as a dramatic poet.

The subjects of most of his dramas were taken from Latin and Italian poets Atalanta after Ovid, Lavinia after Virgil, Armida after Tasso ; but at least in two dramas, Pavlimir and Tsaptislava, he displayed some originality, taking his themes from Servian national history. Gyorgyich’s best Prork is. Af ter Gyorgyich the Servian literature of Ragusa and Dalmatia during the 18th century has no great name to show, except that of the mathematician, Ruggiero Boshkovich see Boscovicu. His two brothers and his sister Anitsa Boshkovich were known in their time as poets.

But on the whole Servian literature on the Adriatic coast showed little originality in the 18th century; its writers were content to produce good translations of Latin, Italian and French works.

Mention must be made, however, of an author whose work connects the literature of the Adriatic Servians of the 18th century with the regenerative efforts of the Danubian Servians in the second decade of the 19th century. The literature of the Adriatic Servians was, with very few exceptions, Servian only in language, but Italian in form and spirit.

About the middle encikolpedija the 18th century a learned Dalmatian monk, Andrea Kachich Mioshich by name, emancipated himself from the yoke of pseudo-classicism and slavery to Western models.

As a papal delegate he had to visit all the Roman Catholic communities in Dalmatia, Herzegovina and Bosnia, and had numerous opportunities of hearing the bards recite songs on old national heroes.

In he published a book entitled Razgovor Ugodni Naroda Slovinskoga ” The Popular Talk of the Slavonic People “in which in songs he described – in the manner and in the spirit of the national bards – the more important historic or legendary events and heroes of the ” Slavonic people. His book immediately became the most popular that ever appeared among the Servians, and was again and again reprinted, under the less ponderous title Pesmaritsa, ” The Book of Songs.

But Kachich Mioshich found no immediate followers among the Servian literati of the second half of the 18th century. The Revival of Servian Literature: As long as the countries inhabited by the Orthodox Gritanika were under the deadening immediate rule of the Turks, they produced no serious literature.

But when the Austrian wars of the 17th century began to roll back the Turkish rspskom, and Hungary recovered its freedom, the Servians living in that country rapidly acquired some culture, and their literature began to revive. During the 18th britanuka, however, they did not write in the living briranika of the Servian people. After the snciklopedija of the Servian printing-presses in the 16th century, all liturgical books were brought from Russia and printed in the Russian-Slavonic language; while the teachers in the Servian schools were Russians.

Russian-Slavonic thus enicklopedija the literary language of the Orthodox Servians. The more important works of the time were the History of Montenegro, by the Montenegrin bishop Basil Petrovitch.

During extensive travels in Russia and the Balkan countries Raich had collected a rich historical material and was able to write, for the brltanika time in the annals of Servian literature, a work which has every claim to be considered as a real history. The Servians call him ” the father enckilopedija Servian history. It was not much better when through the influence of the living language it began to approach nearer to Servian than to Russian, and was called ” Slavonic-Servian ” Slaveno-Serbski.

The Servians had some authors in the 18th century, but it could hardly have been said that they had readers. All this suddenly changed when Dositey Dositheus Enciklopeidja appeared on the scene. In boyhood he had entered the monastery of Hoppovo in south Britanikaa and had become a monk. But as very soon he found that the monastery could not satisfy his aspirations, he left it and started to travel, acquiring a knowledge of classical and modern languages and literatures.

An ardent Servian patriot, he proclaimed the principle that books ought to be written for the people and therefore in the language which the people understood and spoke. His first book, The Life and the Adventures of Demeter Obradovich – a monk named Dositey Leipzig,was written in the language spoken in Servian towns. It immediately made a great impression, which was enhanced by the continuation of his autobiography Home Letters and especially by his Fables of Aesop and of other Writers Leipzig, These books created a reading public among the Servians and mark the beginning of a really modern period of Servian literature.

Obradovich, or rather ” Dositey ” as Servians call him, was so highly appreciated as an author, savant and patriot that in Karageorge invited him to Servia and appointed him a senator and minister of public education, in which capacity he established in Belgrade the first Servian college Velika Shkola.

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Rusko-turski rat (1877–1878)

Dositey was an admirer of England and English literature. While staying in London in he was much encouraged by the patronage and friendship of Dr William Fordyce, while his pupil, Paul Solarich, another distinguished author, was befriended by the Hon.

Frederick North, afterwards 5th earl of Guildford, state secretary for public instruction in the Ionian Islands. Only a few of his contemporaries followed the example which Dositey set in writing in the vernacular although even he introduced from time to time purely Slavonic words and forms. It was believed that the vernacular could not be raised to the dignity of a literary language, and that literature and science needed words and expressions which were entirely lacking in the common language.

But Vuk Stefanovich Karajich, a self-taught writer, proved the fallacy of that assumption. By his publication of the national songs and poems, which he carefully collected, he opened the eyes of Servian authors to the wealth and beauty of their own language, as spoken by the mass of the people and used by the national bards. His thorough knowledge of the Servian language led him to reform the Cyrillic alphabet, in which several letters were redundant and certain sounds of the spoken language were unrepresented.

His efforts to make Servian writers adopt his reformed alphabet, and accept the language of the common people as a literary language, met with fierce opposition, especially on the part of the clergy and friends of the artificial Slaveno-Servian literary language. It was only after that his principles won a complete victory in all directions. The poets abandoned classical models and ceased to write in hexameters; they preferred to derive their inspiration from popular poetry, of which Karajich collected for them hundreds of examples.

Writers in different departments of literature vied with each other to write in pure and correct Servian. And, although it could not be justly said that the Servians of the 10th century produced a really great work from the literary point of view, they certainly made progress and produced some remarkable poetry.

Sarayliya’s most important work is Serbiyanka Leipzig,in which he describes the rising of the Servians against the Turks in and His imagination is lively, his descriptions graphic, but the impetuosity of his genius cannot find adequate words to express itself, and then he creates new words of which the meaning is not always clear.

For this reason he never was really popular among the Servians. In the Lucha he describes how the spirit of man wished to solve the problem of human destiny. He was led by a protecting angel to the beginning of time when Satan, supported by an angel called Adam, was in full rebellion against God.

But the co-rebel Adam repented and God then created the Earth and sent Adam to expiate his sin by living amidst difficulties and sufferings on that planet. In Gorski Viyenats, ” The Mountain Wreath ” Vienna,Nyegosh describes the liberation of Montenegro from the Turks towards the end of the 17th century in the form of a drama.

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There is, however, hardly anything dramatic in the poem, but the characters deliver magnificent descriptions of Montenegro and Montenegrins, and the play is full of noble sentiments and great thoughts. The Servians consider Gorski Viyenats the finest poetical work in their literature. It has been translated into all the principal European languages except English. His own lyrical and satirical poems are without a rival in Servian literature.

In his later enciklopedijx he gave much of his time and talent to the interests of children, editing papers for boys and dedicating hundreds of his finest songs to children. There are several editions of his collected poems; one of the best is that of the Servian Literary Association Belgrade, The Servians have as yet no great novelist, but they have several very successful writers of short stories. Among these the first place belongs to Dr Laza Lazarevich.

After him the most popular authors of short stories are: Stefan Sremats, whose mild satire and sparkling humour earned for him the name of the britanija Servian Dickens “; Yanko Veselinovich, author of some delightful sketches from srpsklm life of Servian peasants; Sima Matavuly, whose stories give a true picture of the Servians of Dalmatia and of Montenegro. Delightful stories of old times and of the Adriatic coast were written by Stef an Mitrov Lyubisha In dramatic literature the Servians are comparatively rich.

Maxim Tsrnoyevich and Petar Segedinats; also the comedy Gordana. Matiya Ban’s Meyrimah is considered the best tragedy in the Serbo-Croatian language.