Variety Eucheuma denticulatum var. endong Trono & Ganzon-Fortes, Environment. marine. Original description. Not documented. Descriptive notes. Eucheuma denticulatum (Burm.f.) Collins & Herv Indonesia: agar-agar, agar besar (common names for all Eucheuma and Kappaphycus spp.). Fig. 1. Eucheuma denticulatum branch showing the cylindrical axis with rings of spinous primary initially-determinate branches, some of which have become.
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Eucheumatoid cultivation is increasing and a variety of methods exist that can increase production. However, new cultivation approaches are rarely reported.
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The objective of study was to examine a new method of seaweed cultivation: The growth rate of Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappahycus alvarezii was assessed in floating cages from March-November, and compared with that in the traditional longline approach.
Propagule wet weight was measured daily to document growth rates. Growth rates of both species in floating cages were faster than on longline and thallus morphology was better. Therefore, it was concluded that cultivation of E. The difference in results comes from reduced herbivore attack when the plants are in the protective cages. Eucheuma cultivation continues to expand, with the most commonly cultivated types being Kappahycus alvareziiEucheuma striatum and Eucheuma denticulatum.
Commercial cultivation of K. Eucheuma cultivation continues to increase in scale and several countries such as India, Japan, Indonesia, Tanzania, Fiji, Hawaii and South Africa are high producers 4. Fiji developed a raft method for K. Indonesia began to develop raft methods inbut switched to longline tie-tie 8 – Maldives, India and Tanzania began to develop cultivation in the s 12 – 15 and some countries such as Vietnam, Brazil and Venezuela began to develop various methods as late as 16 – Longline, known as tie-tie in the Philippines, is the most common method used to cultivate K.
Longline binds the seaweed together to improve growth. Some countries also developed a similar method, in which the bound seaweeds grow on the surface of the sea.
A disadvantage of longline cultivation is herbivorous grazing on the seaweed 12 and Eucheumatoid seaweeds are highly preferred by herbivores.
Grazing by herbivores, together with problems of pests and ice-ice disease, can reduce the production of K.
Such crop losses prompted several countries to begin developing methods that protect seaweed from herbivorous fish. However, protective culture dentculatum are still rarely used by farmers. Philippines began using cages made from net and bamboo 27 but only for small-scale production.
In Brazil, farmers senticulatum developing a floating raft system with a protective tubular net that showed an improvement over the tie technique during a study across one cultivation cycle dentiiculatum. In Indonesia, seaweed cultivation methods have not been altered. The present study reports the daily growth rates of K. The floating cage is a new method for cultivation of Eucheuma in Indonesia. The boxes were wrapped with multifilament nets with a mesh size of 1 cm, but the top of the cage was unwrapped to allow access to the plants Fig.
The specific growth rate SGR was calculated by daily measurement of propagule wet weight in each cage over a period of 90 days. The formula of Luhan and Sollesta 28 was used:. The wet weight of K. Total nitrogen and phosphorus were determined using the spectrophotometric methods described by Strickland and Parson Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS package Denticulathm weight of K. Propagule morphology of E. Fresh weights of E. Likewise, the daily growth rates of K.
The fresh weight of K.
Taken together, the results showed that the floating cage method yields a higher wet weight than does the longline approach. The growth rate of both seaweeds in floating cages and on longline differed. For floating cages, the average growth of E. The average growth of K.
The SGR of E. However, a difference was noted when using a floating cage. The SGRs were the lowest in April 2. The SGR for K. A positive correlation was found between seaweed growth and the level of nitrate and phosphate, particularly between June and September Fig. The current speed typically ranged from 0.
Nitrate concentration reached a high of 0. Phosphate concentration in May, July and August was 0. A negative correlation was found between growth rate of K. The difference in growth of Eucheuma between floating cages and longline was less prominent over days in April-July when herbivorous fish were not present. However, a substantial decrease in growth was seen in E. On days 50 and 70, wet weights of E. These results differed from those for the floating cage, in which the weights were 74 and 61 kg, respectively.
New Methods on Cultivation of Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappahycus alvarezii in Indonesia
Growth of both E. The main reason for loss in wet weight on longline was that propagules were damaged and carried away by the current and some were grazed by herbivorous fish. In contrast, cultivation in floating cages can protect seaweeds from pests and strong current. Broken propagules will remain in the net. However, after 50 days of growth, Eucheuma biomass became very dense and covered almost the entire cage. Such conditions resulted in poor growth and led to a decrease in weight.
This suggests that the cultivation period of Dentifulatum in most sites in the world should not exceed 50 days. Optimum production occurs between 40 and 50 days. The average growth rate of K. The growth rate of K. Furthermore, April and May are good growing periods for K. In Bongao, Southern Philippines, K.
The average growth rate ranged from 5. However, the growth was noted to eucheuna when the cultivation was continued for 59 days In Madagascar, the highest growth rate of E. An SGR of 2. In Yucatan State, Mexico, the growth rate of Eucheuma isiforme increased over 25 days to 2. Herbivorous pests and ice-ice disease greatly affect Eucheuma production At Vizhinjam village, Kerala, India, the growth and production of K.
Euvheuma the same study init was found that growth increased using the longline method when no herbivorous fish are present in the cultivation area. The use of floating cages in the present study protected K. Increasing growth throughout the year is an indication of the absence of pest attacks on propagules of K. In the present study, environmental factors also affected the growth of E.
During June-July, the nitrate concentration ranged from 0. May, with a temperature range of In the Philippines, ejcheuma good temperature for the growth of K. The presence of many herbivores at cultivation areas of K. The best way to overcome this is by using a method that can protect both K. The floating cage method is currently the best solution to avoid grazing and thereby improve production.
Herbivorous fishes were able denticulqtum graze on K. The floating cage method protected the seaweeds from the various herbivores.
In the present study, the production and growth rate of K. This study clarifies the utilization of new methods in seaweed cultivation. Floating cage is a new demticulatum that successfully avoids grazing fish and herbivorous animals against cultivated seaweed. The use of floating cage will be possible to increase the production of seaweed, especially Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum.
Authors are grateful to the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia for the full research funding of this research project Funding No: Similar Articles in this Journal.
Search in Google Scholar. How to cite this article: Journal of Fisheries and Denticlatum Science, April 22, ; Accepted: July 10, ; Published: Different production of E.
Different production of K. Monthly growth rates of E.