of India has sponsored the GRAMSAT programme, which is operating in Orissa. .. Satellite communication networks have been an indispensable part of most. Commissioned in , INSAT is the largest domestic communication system in the Asia This Gramsat satellite is carrying six to eight high powered C-band. Guided with these views a dedicated satellite called GramSat is being planned for rural development and tele-education in India. It is desirable that system.

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Indian comunication programme is acclaimed for the effectiveness in utilising the space systems for a variety of applications. New initiatives are being undertaken to expand the application of these systems. The highlights of the applications programme are given in the following paragraphs. Village Resource Centres VRCs Satellite based communication and remote sensing technologies have demonstrated their capabilities to provide services related to education, healthcare, weather, land and water resources management, mitigation of impact of natural disasters, etc.

VRCs are envisaged as single window delivery mechanism for a variety of space based products and services, such as tele-education, tele-medicine, information on natural resources for planning and development at local level, interactive advisories on agriculture, fisheries, land and water resources management, livestock management, etc, interactive vocational training towards alternative livelihood, e-governance, weather information, etc. VRCs will also address a variety of social aspects locally, and can act as helplines.

Housing, managing and operating the VRCs will rest with the associating agencies. VRCs being set up include: The programme is primarily for school, college and higher levels of education and to support non-formal education. A total of five school networks Chamarajanagar and Gulbarga in Karnataka, Sidhi in Madhya Pradesh, Mallapuram in Kerala and Lakshadweep have been proposed of which two are commjnication and three are under implementation.

This includes a unique network for Blind Peoples Association operating in Ku-band western regional beam established in 10 blind schools of Gujarat.

Manufacturers and service providers will vramsat the systems and expand the present networks with funding by the end-users and technical and managerial support from DOS. A general enrichment programme on higher education college sector is telecast communixation the national network. These programmes, provided by the University Grants Commission UGCare a part of its countrywide classroom programme.

The channel airing programmes originating from different IITs benefit the students pursuing technology and engineering. It provides one-way video and two-way audio system of interactive education. The teaching-end includes a studio and uplink facility for transmitting live or pre-recorded lectures.

The participants at the classrooms located nationwide receive lectures through simple dish antennas and have facility to interact with lecturers using telephone lines. The Direct Receive System network consists of more than 4, classrooms spread over the country. Several state governments are using TDCC system extensively for distance education, rural development, women and children development, Panchayat Raj and industrial training. Average monthly utilisation of TDCC is about 25 to 30 days a month with to communicatuon training programmes.

The networks provide computer connectivity, data broadcasting, TV broadcasting facilities having applications like e-governance, National Resource Information System NRISdevelopment information, tele-conferencing, disaster management, telemedicine and distance education.

It is under implementation for North-Eastern region. In Andaman and Nicobar the network is currently serving seven islands through eight nodes. In Orissa, the network has been expanded and upgraded for TV broadcasting to Kalahandi, Bolangir and Koraput region and also for interactive training programmes, e-governance and National Natural Resources Information System to reach all the blocks in 30 districts. Telemedicine Telemedicine is one of the unique applications of space technology for societal benefit.

While DOS provides the telemedicine systems — software, hardware and communication equipments as well as satellite bandwidth — the state governments and the speciality hospitals have to allocate funds for their part of infrastructure, manpower and maintenance. Technology development, standards and cost effective systems have been evolved in association with various state governments, NGOs, speciality hospitals and industry.


DOS interacts with state government and speciality hospitals for bringing an understanding between the parties through an MOU. The task force will work out various aspects of implementing telemedicine in the country. Satellite television now covers over 65 percent of the Indian land mass and over 90 percent of the population. Most of the TV channels are digitised.

The following satellite television services are being operated by Doordarshan: Press Trust of India PTI is implementing a system to provide its news and information services at higher speed and increased volume and variety directly to a wider range of media and other users by utilising the broadcast facilities of INSAT-3C.

In addition, 53 terminals are operational for private DSNG channels. At present, All India Radio AIR stations have been equipped with S-band receive terminals out of which around AIR stations have been upgraded to receive C-band analogue and digital RN carriers and rest of the stations are under process of up-gradation to receive analogue and digital C-band RN carriers.

A total of 76 RN channels are being up-linked at present. Out of these, 39 are operating in CxC and 37 CxC bands. Efforts are underway to augment this to 30 channels. The Bangalore-Delhi digital network with two 34 Mbps streams has been commissioned. Augmentation of existing eight Mbps connectivity amongst four metros is planned by using digital channel multiplying equipment.

A Coal India Limited earth station at Poonch has been commissioned. DOT has licensed a few private operators to provide value-added services to the public using the extended C-band.

The following two classes of services were identified for MSS: The terminal is useful for voice communication especially during disasters when other communication means break communicagion. It can be used from any location in India for emergency communication. Transmit and receive frequencies of the terminal are in S-Band.

Central hub station is located at SAC, Ahmedabad. This consist of low bit rate one-way reporting service using shared channels with portable and hand-held terminals. This is an experimental service. Short messages from user terminals are relayed through the satellite to the hub and are automatically forwarded to the respective user headquarters via Fax or data links. This reporting service is provided using small hand-held terminals.

There is a provision communicattion attach a GPS receiver to the reporting terminal for position information. Upper winds, sea surface temperature and precipitation index data are regularly obtained. The products derived from the image data include: The products are used for weather forecasting, both synoptic and numerical weather prediction.

What is GRAMSAT?

At present, repetitive and synoptic weather system observations over Indian Ocean from geostationary orbit are available only from INSAT system. ISRO has taken up indigenous development of low cost automatic weather station for deployment in the country in large numbers. The data collection is proposed to be carried out in TDMA mode instead of the present random access mode.

For quick dissemination of warnings against impending disaster from approaching cyclones, specially designed receivers have been installed at the vulnerable coastal areas in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, West Bengal and Gujarat for direct transmission of warnings to the officials and public in general using broadcast capability of INSAT.

Three hundred and fifty such receiver stations have been installed by IMD.

The DCWDS has been deployed with acknowledgement transmitters to get confirmation at transmitting station. Development of indigenous search and rescue beacons has been taken up and prototypes are being tested. During the year, the Indian search and rescue system detected and supported two real distress calls that resulted in rescue of 23 people. Both the crew members were rescued. This service is available round-the-clock in a broadcast mode at downlink frequency in S-band and is receivable on a commknication consisting of a 2.


The service consists of a train of 5 kHz bursts signal, which is frequency modulated on the carrier. The time has a precision of better than one microsecond and accuracy of better than astellite microseconds.

When implemented, the Indian SBAS system will play an important role in the introduction of satellite based navigation services in the Asia Pacific region. The first navigation payload is being fabricated and it is proposed to be flown on the GSAT-4 expected to be launched in Two more payloads will be subsequently flown, one each on two geostationary satellites.

Ten Standing Committees have been constituted for application of remote sensing in different areas. State and central government departments, state remote sensing centres and others are associated in these projects. Some of the major application projects carried out during the year are highlighted in the following paragraphs. Demonstrative studies on its utilisation have focused on land records metrology, land parcel mapping, city guide map updation, terrain parameter retrieval, base map generation, etc.

Land parcel maps have been prepared for a few villages. The work involved preparation of maps on 1: Work is nearing completion in Gujarat and Communicatjon. Phase-III satelltie been proposed to cover the remaining states of India. The user feedback indicates good success for targeting water.

Training workshops have been organised in all the states to demonstrate the utility of these maps for selection of well sites and planning recharge structures. As many as 74, wells have been drilled in seven states with the overall success rate of 90 percent and about 3, recharge structures have been constructed.

Acreage and production estimates for principal crops satellte as wheat, rice, sorghum, cotton, mustard and groundnut are generated under the project using stratified random sampling approach. Achievements of CAPE include evaluation of multi-date remote sensing data for crop identification, creation of a geo-referenced cadastral data-base for accuracy evaluation, development of yield models using trend and weather data.

The all India wheat area was estimated as The national Kharif rice area was estimated as Kharif Rice acreage and production forecasts for Andhra Pradesh were 2. Rabi acreage and production forecasts for Andhra Pradesh were Sugarcane acreage estimates for nine districts of Uttar Pradesh was completed and the total acreage was 2.

The all India potato area was estimated as 1.

GRAMSAT Satellites: Overview

Jowar acreage estimates for gramsqt districts of Karnataka was 1. Agroclimatic Planning and Information Bank: Under Phase-II of Agroclimatic Planning and Information Bank taken up for six districts of Karnataka, web-based information bank has been generated for 63 major horticultural crops. The website has been launched and generation of the same in the regional language has been completed.

A synergy of precision farming with other technologies like remotely-sensed images coupled with GPS commuunication GIS offers a powerful tool for arriving at farm management decisions at within field level to optimise crop production based on the potentials and limitations of the available resources.

Potential fishing zones were initially forecast using sea surface temperature data. A third parameter, the Sea Surface Wind SSW which indicates the effect of currents on feeding grounds, has now been incorporated resulting in further improvement in forecasts. The reliability of forecast has increased from 70 to 80 percent.

Initiated jointly by the Department of Biotechnology and the Department of Space, the biodiversity characterisation at landscape level, covers four main biodiversity rich regions of the country — NE Region, Western Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.