Résumé (eng). Kerküşti Höyük, which was successively inhabited from the Early Halaf until almost to the end of the Middle Halaf is geographically located in the. View Halaf Pottery Research Papers on for free. The lower levels 11 to 7 are all part of the pre-Halaf Pottery Neolithic, the subsequent levels 6 to 4 are considered to represent a tran- sitional period, whereas.
|Published (Last):||15 October 2011|
|PDF File Size:||7.25 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||6.74 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Anatolia AntiquaTome 19, The general character of the architecture reflects short-termed seasonal occupations with round and rectangular structures.
The existence of structures with high stone foundations and wattle-and-daub superstructures as well as the ones with well plastered earthen floors hints that the area might have been used both permanently and seasonally.
Although we celebrate the th anniversary of the discovery of the Halaf pottery, and there are many excavations and surveys at different politically established countries in SW Asia1 and even though there is a particular interest in Halaf Culture by many researchers and scholars and there are many theories and interpretations; social organization and subsistence economy of the Halaf culture cannot still be well identified and beside this, the origin and the breakdown of this distinctive culture is still in dark.
Despite its broader homeland with several environmental settings, from Cilicia in west, to the Zagros Mountain range in east, Elazig-Mus plain and southeast of Lake Van in the north, and Mid- Mesopotamia in south, the existence of various social organizations and different settlement types as well as various subsistence strategies are reasonable.
As a general, a major part of the Halaf economy mainly depends on agriculture and animal herding2. The threefold division of Halaf Culture early, middle, late which was established by Mallowan and Rose in was later developed in the late s by defining the Halaf-Ubeid transitional phase4. Further development came through the evidences from Tell Sabi Abyad that demonstrated the identification of earlier stages of Early Halaf5.
Middle Halaf was renamed as Halaf lia6. Accordingly, the site was successively occupied from the Early Halaf phase Va until more or less to the end of the Middle Halaf phase Vbl Environmental setting, location, stratigraphy and architecture. The plain is cut by intermittent tributaries of the Habur Euphrates. The southernmost limit of the Karacadag basalt intrusions7 could have been seen in various parts of the plain as outcrops.
The total deposit measures 4.
It was first excavated as a salvage project in by the Mardin Museum. Some building remains and a mosaic of Roman Period, and basalt rock cut-tombs were exposed8. According to the intensive surface surveys and the rescue operations, the site yields five periods: The first two periods are represented by a few finds and scattered pottery in the operation areas.
Garbage pits are the only remains of Middle Bronze Age. The stone architecture of Late Chalcolithic Age was badly disturbed by several means. The Halaf settlement within the deposit of 1. Va and Vb Fig. Vb potterry three well defined sub-phases: Vbl, Vb2 and Vb3, whereas Va has no sub-phases9. Phase Va is represented by five round structures with diameters ranging from 1.
Even there is no evidence for their superstructures, the weak constructions of the stone footings might resemble structures which were made of perishable materials. The inner living surfaces of the dwellings can only be identified by the distribution of objects.
Settlement pattern cannot be determined due to limited exposure but according to basic features of the structures. Phase Va seems to be a seasonal settlement. Rectilinear plan first appeared in sub-phase Vbl and continued. The stone footings of the rectangular buildings and the round structures were directly erected on the ground as they were in the previous phase.
One of the rectangular room seems to be extraordinary with its size 2. Subphase Vb2 is represented by five round structures in different degrees of preservations, a rectangular large-room building and a kiln.
The general layout of sub-phases Vbl and Vb2 are almost identical. The open area yields great amount of animal bones and large fragments of pottery as well as ashy areas.
In the sub-phase Vb3 some changes occurred not only in construction techniques, but also in settlement organization and usage of space.
The round plan became predominant, rectilinear plan was out of use. The settlement was composed of two sections separated by a large open area ca. In the eastern section, four round structures were uncovered, two of them with their high stone foundations and their identical dimensions 2. One of them was used relatively a longer period, carries a permanent character. Thick wattle-and daub fragments in its interior fill gives us an opportunity for superstructures.
Hard plastered earthen floors only exist in the two round dwellings. The floors which are roundish with the diameters of 1.
Studies on the Halaf Pottery of the Kerküşti Höyük – Persée
Their sides which were curved upward to unpreserved architectural elements suggested that there were some specific areas inside the structures separated by perishable materials.
Two structures yield grinding slabs fixed in the ground. In the western part, there are partly preserved two round structures with simple stone footings erected on the ground.
These structures were used in the early part of the sub-phase Vb3 halfa seem to carry seasonal character. In the second half of the sub-phase, western part was reserved for cooking by constructing two large kilns and also for burials.
Graves are distributed over an area of m2 with six burials in different age and sex without any defined pit or burial gift. The Halaf pottery has three basic forms: Pedestal bowls and spouted jars are rarely found forms. The Halaf pottery of Kerkiisti is not different in fabric and decoration from the other Halaf sites There are only four pieces of none local character Fig.
All were made of pure clay. The decoration on the fragments of a bowl in sub-phase Vbl with a row of seated deer is similar to a sherd that was exposed in Tell Halaf The last one found in the sub- phase Vb2 has an incised geometric decoration on gray surface Fig. Standard Painted Ware Fig. The inclusions in their paste which are mainly calcium carbonate particles and sand were either added intentionally or they are the elements.
Chamotte tempers are rarely seen. Standard Painted and Standard Plain Wares are medium-thick walled mm pots and mainly handmade. Moulded technique was used in the manufacture of hallaf bowls and occasionally, of hlaf bowls. All are well fired. The decorations are composed of geometric, naturalistic and stylized designs or combination of all. They are mainly in the form of thick- walled mm handmade jars and conical bowls. Orange Painted haalaf Plain Wares were made of coarse clay with rough calcium carbonate, chamotte and grit in.
Some of them have pitted surfaces. The decorations of the Orange Painted Ware are thick bands, cross-hatching pottry zigzags. Their outer surfaces are slipped and burnished, interior parts of the rims are also burnished.
They are mainly medium- thick walled mm handmade pots. The forms of DFBW are horizontal necked globular body jars and hole-mouth vessels.
The decorations are thick bands and triangles. The ones in the phases Va and sub- phase Vbl are more qualified. Course Ware is vegetal tempered, plain and moderately or badly fired. They are found in every phases and have no characteristic form.
The ones in Va are very fragmentary but the ones in Vb are bigger in size. There are three basic forms bowls, jars, plates and miscellaneous forms like spouted jars Fig. Bowls have ten variations 1A-1K Fig. Jars have six forms 2A-2F Fig. Almost all the forms are represented in every phases.
Plates are dominant in Vb. Monochrome decoration is always predominant in all of the phases. Bichrome decoration which appears in sub-phase Vbl becomes common in sub-phase Vb2, decreases in Vb3.
Polychrome decoration are rare only found on a few sherds of only 3 fragments sub-phase Halav Fig. Painted decoration is rich. There are mainly two types of decoration, geometric and naturalistic- stylized.
Halaf Pottery Research Papers –
Sometimes combinations of the two types of designs Multi-design are seen on one pot Fig. Geometric patterns are thick and thin.
Distribution of Monochrome, bichrome and polychrome pottery in Kerkiis. Naturalistic- stylized patterns are human, bucranium, gazelle, bird, scorpion, herring-bone pattern, tree, flower, sun and malta-cross Fig. Motifs of the phase Va are mainly geometric and displayed limited variations like simple bands, cross hatchings, lozenges, triangles and zigzags.
Wavy lines, dots and chains first appeared in sub- phase Vbl. Stylized and naturalistic motifs Bucranium, deer, bird which are rarely seen in phase Va, become widespread in phase Vb. Multi-design and incised decorations are rare. Multi-design is first seen in Vbl but is getting increased in Vb3 Fig.
The distribution of designs on vessels mainly depends on forms and size, but also varies in the phases. The painted decoration was sometimes fully applied on vessels. Except the bottoms, usually the outer surfaces of the bowls are decorated, sometimes left plain and only a thick band was added on rim.
The upper parts of the jars are heavily pottdry. The design pattern on the inner surfaces change according to the forms.