BDI-II. Inventario de Depresion de Beck. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Paidos. Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (). Internal consistencies of the original and revised. The first Spanish adaptation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was published in This year marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of its first. Abstract. SANZ, Jesús and GARCIA-VERA, María Paz. Diagnostic performance and factorial structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II).

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The number of Spanish-speaking individuals and immigrants in the United States has risen dramatically and is projected to continue to rise. The availability of appropriately translated and validated measurement instruments, such as the Beck Depression Inventory, is a priority for researchers and clinicians in the Deprssion.

The purpose of this study was to pilot a Mexican adaptation of the BDI-II and report initial psychometric characteristics. Two samples were used: Results indicated that the translation was easily understood by most individuals, had adequate internal consistency, and a three-factor structure negative attitude, performance difficulties, and somatic elements had the best fit.

Implications for use with Mexican-origin Spanish speakers are discussed. Dos muestras fueron utilizados: Implicaciones para el uso con Hispano-hablantes de origen mexicano se discuten. Hispanic individuals are an increasingly important segment of the United States population.

Inthere were The burden of illness for this significant population can be greater than that of other groups, even after controlling for variables such as socioeconomic status. Given the disproportionate burden of illness, it is important to have appropriate measurement to help assess and treat depression in this population. The BDI-II is one of the most depreion used measures of depression and has demonstrated strong psychometric properties in a variety of settings and populations.

Subsequently, two studies have used this translation and provided psychometric properties for two samples: These two studies specifically assessed reliability, factorial validity, and possible language effects with subsamples of bilingual individuals. Three Spanish psychologists translated the BDI-II and their versions were compared for discrepancies with one version being created and sent to a bilingual psychologist in the U.

Propiedades psicométricas del Inventario de Depresión de Beck II en pacientes con cáncer.

Norms and psychometric data were provided for undergraduates, community sample of Madrid, and a clinical population. The authors reported a single factor solution using principal components analysis PCA for all three samples. They also reported that the translation had adequate criterion validity in their undergraduate and clinical samples using diagnoses of depression based on interviews.

The study established adequate internal consistency, convergent validity, proposed a three-factor structure based on exploratory factor analysis. Despite the reviewed literature, there are issues that need to be addressed before the BDI-II is used with confidence in the Inventaro.

Undergraduates and hemodialysis patients, and the Spanish translation used Spanish samples. It is important to extend the research ivnentario to individuals in Mexico and individuals from the community to see if it is appropriate for use in Mexico and Mexican-origin Spanish-speakers in the U. Second, in personal communication with Penley and colleagues, one of the translators for the U. For example, regions have different dialects that express the same concept in different words.

A growing body of literature has demonstrated that there are differences between Spanish-speaking regions that continue to change based on immigration status and socioeconomic status. One way to improve understanding for those with low education is to increase readability, which is operationalized as the number of syllables in words and ibventario of words per sentence.

Third, different hdi structures have been reported in the literature, including a one-factor structure, 17 two different two-factor structures, 11 – 12 and a three-factor structure.


It is unclear which invrntario structure best describes the BDI-II in Spanish-speaking individuals as they have not been explicitly compared in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to develop and pilot an adaptation of the BDI-II for use with Spanish-speaking individuals of Mexican origin. There were three inventxrio goals of ve study. First, this adaptation addressed inventatio with regional language and readability previously discussed.

Third, there is no evidence for which factor structure best reflects the latent structure of the BDI-II in Spanish-speakers; this study explored latent structure with PCA and compared different structures using confirmatory factor analysis CFA techniques. The study consisted of two samples: Twenty-nine did bbdi complete all measures and were removed from subsequent analyses, leavingof whom dspresion The community sample consisted of Mexican residents living in Mexico City and surrounding area.

Of the original sample, 15 were discarded due to incomplete information, leavingof whom The majority were single In addition to the BDI-II, participants in the student sample were given a demographic questionnaire, multidimensional coping styles questionnaire, a life stress checklist, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS as part of a separate study. These translators were bilingual psychologists and psychology doctoral students from UNAM. One of the authors I.

This Spanish translation was back-translated to English by a separate bilingual psychologist. No difficulties were noted by the pilot group and this final BDI-II was used for all subsequent analyses.

Rendimiento diagnóstico y estructura factorial del Inventario de Depresión de Beck-II (BDI-II)

This adaptation was compared with the translation currently available in the U. For example, on item 17 irritability the U.

The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale is a item self-report measure of depression and anxiety. The psychometric properties of the scale have been demonstrated to be adequate in multiple populations.

The study was approved by the institutional review board at UNAM. Student participants were contacted as part of a larger psychological intervention study tailored for medical students. The sample primarily came from the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, although students from 34 other hospitals also participated. Participants that consented to participate would then arrive at UNAM’s central campus and complete a packet of questionnaires in a group setting.

For the community sample, individuals from different public parks and plazas in Mexico City were approached to participate in the study over a two month period. They were told that the study would involve questions about their mood over the past two weeks, including the current date. Interested individuals who were residents of Mexico were read an informed consent form and asked if they wanted to participate. In both samples, lists with contact information for psychological resources were made available and no identifying information was collected.

Participation in both studies depresiob completely voluntary and there was no compensation. Data were screened for assumptions e. After calculating basic psychometrics for each sample, a subset of data from both sample was randomly selected to explore with PCA since the BDI-II has not been tested with Mexican samples. Oblimin rotation was used to ease interpretability. CFA with a separate subset of data was performed to test structural equivalence of our adaptation in this sample and determine the most appropriate factor structure.

A separate subsample was used to d inflated estimates of model fit from exploitation of error variance that occur when PCA and CFA are performed with the same sample.

Multiple factor structures have been presented in the English literature: Items17, 21; Factor II: Although most of these models have been validated on student samples, they have also been shown to function in community samples and are generally combined to indicate a nonclinical sample model. Although the use of cut-off conventions for approximate fit indices is disputed and can vary depending on factors such as model complexity, the following cut-offs were used for this study: In the student sample, invenario individuals were removed for missing more than 2 items.


Students had a mean score of 9. Item means, standard deviations, and item-total correlations are reported in Table 1. There were gender effects, with females having higher scores Total scores did not have a statistically significant association with age. Comparisons between genders indicated a similar gender effect with females having higher scores No statistically significant relationship with age was observed.

The two samples were combined because no large differences were observed between samples, and to increase power and reduce restriction of range from the education of the student sample. Student and community samples can be combined for a nonclinical sample.

Scree plot analysis indicated that a two-factor solution was parsimonious. The factor loadings from the oblimin structure matrix are reported in Table 2. CFA was performed with the remaining individuals in the combined sample and results for the different models are reported in Table 3. The chi-square significance tests for all models were statistically significant.

The two-factor Beck et al. The two-factor Dozois et al. The three-factor Osman et al. The purpose inventaruo this study was to explore the psychometric characteristics of an adaptation of the BDI-II for use with a Mexican, Spanish-speaking population. In the current study, a translation was created using multiple translators who were familiar with mental health and popular terminology for depression in Mexico. After multiple revisions and piloting, a tentative final version was administered to a student and community sample.

This vepresion consistent with the alphas found in multiple English samples. With regard to content and factorial validity, the item relationships occur in a similar fashion as they do in English samples.

Adaptation of the BDI-II in Mexico

This factor model is also supported in English-speaking samples, indicating that item responses reflect cognitive symptoms, performance difficulties, and somatic complaints. Although the three-factor model presents with the best fit of the three models, two alternative models are not completely inviable alternatives.

This result may be indicative of a characteristic of the measure. Since the National Institute of Mental Health NIMH has called for the increased use of factors in research and practice, individuals interested in measuring components of depression may be better served by using a measure designed for this purpose, such as the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms.

Although there was adequate convergent validity, as demonstrated by a large, statistically significant correlation with the HADS depression scale, there were issues with discriminant validity. Our scale’s total score had a stronger correlation with the HADS anxiety scale than with the depression scale. This may have multiple explanations.

Another explanation is that generalized anxiety symptoms group together with depression, which may reflect a common etiology. A third explanation is that depression and anxiety may cluster together very strongly in Spanish speaking populations.

This study has strengths and limitations worth mentioning. One strength is that it provides important information for clinicians and researchers in Mexico who plan to use the BDI-II. To date, only the BDI has been validated for Mexican populations, which explains why it is frequently used. This information is also important for clinicians and researchers in the U.