Despite not being a criterion for severe malaria, thrombocytopenia is one of the .. estudo sôbre a febre biliosa-hemoglobinúrica; síntese, Imprensa Nacional. biliosa is the feminine of bilioso. About Plural and Conceptually-related expressions of “biliosa” malaria biliosa remitente · paludismo. Definition (MSH), A complication of MALARIA, FALCIPARUM characterized by the Febre biliosa hemoglobinúrica, Febre Hemoglobinúrica, Malária Hemolítica.
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Non-planed urbanization as a contributing mwlaria for malaria incidence in Manaus-Amazonas, Brazil. This paper presents a study on the dynamics of malaria in Manaus and its relationship with the urban expansion and environmental factors related to it.
biliosa – English Translation – Word Magic Spanish-English Dictionary
The purpose of this paper is: A retrospective study was carried out on malaria epidemiology from to ; data on the evolution and urban expansion of the city of Manaus were surveyed. Data were descriptively analysed making a relationship between the environmental aspects of urbanization and the way the city of Manaus was occupied and how this has contributed to malaria epidemiology in the city.
The findings point out to the importance of the environment on malaria incidence, and to the influence of the anthropic interventions on the modification of the ecosystem, making the urban environment ideal for the proliferation of Anopheles sp mosquitoes, vectors of this disease. These elements in association continue to favour the maintenance of the incidence of malaria in the urban area of Manaus.
Malaria, environment, urbanization source: Malaria stands out as a major issue in the health care implementation activities, especially when considering the epidemiological factors, which are determinant for the establishment and maintenance of its transmission, namely the mosquito Anophelesthe protozoa Plasmodium and the human being, its susceptible carrier.
From a biological viewpoint, malaria is well understood and simple, yet the established relations between mosquito, man and the environment make the characteristics, which determine the occurrence of a higher or lower number of sick people 1.
Under this context, urbanization plays a major role, since the cities have become more urbanised, the Amazonian reality, have favored the ideal conditions for the increase of malaria cases. When it is studied the environmental conditions who determine the malaria incidence in Manaus-Amazonas, Brazil, it can be noted that there is a strong relationship between the disease’s incidence and the environmental urban expansion changes.
This might provide means for future intervention and correction of the identified factors, as well as serve as a subsidy for the urban-environmental planning. Therefore, this research study aims to analyze the urbanization aspects that have an influence on the dynamics of malaria in the city of Manaus-Amazonas, Brazil, and its epidemiology in the period between and Statistical treatment was performed through the arrangement into spread-sheets, tabulation and interpretation of the information acquired.
Data were plotted in tables and graphs according to the information characteristic and it was analyzed the malaria occurrence distribution through the Manaus’ neighbourhoods.
As to the ethical aspects, the explained and informed consent term was used, obeying the rules of research involving human beings.
Inits population summed up only inhabitants whose economic activity was limited to the extraction of Forest products, the so called “jungle drugs” 2. Those processes generated changes in the city, when a large number of people “invaded” Manaus and came to settle into the peripheral areas. Consequently, the Manaus urban growth accelerated reaching nearly half all the population of the Amazonas State in bilosa, which occurred without any structuring capable of absorbing and integrating this population into the social bilioosa economic process.
Many were the neighbourhoods that appeared following the implantation of the MFZ, malariaa of them deprived of the essential means and town planning, “seeds of grave future problems for the city” The non-planed expansion caused an unbalance on the urban ecosystem, which malaira to the social economical situation of the inhabitants contributed to the decreasing quality of life, which is confirmed by the outbreak of disease 1,6.
Taking into account the fact of health being a sensitive indicator of the life and environment in which an individual is inserted. Several neighbourhoods appeared obeying the town planing profile for dwelling bioiosa and “by occurring far apart from each other in a dispersed manner they gave way to the appearance of wide vacant spaces raising the cost of goods and services” 8. This brought about the arising of environmental problems such as the contamination of the surface waters, caused by domestic sewage and other wastes from human activity 9.
Those vacant spaces also facilitated the “disorderly” occupation by people trying to find a place to live that would be the closest possible to an area already possessing the beginnings of a living infrastructure, and by doing so hampering the structure and residents already in place. From on, the city kept on expanding and also increasing the ” invasions ” of the central area with mlaaria improper occupation of the areas near the shorelines of the streams running through the city.
This in fact brought about environmental makaria worsened by the drainage of wastes and used waters, which are polluting these courses of water 9. The occupation of Manaus occurred more pronouncedly towards the East Zone, and in second place, towards the North Zone. They were previously primary forested areas crosscut by streams.
The natural habitat of some endemic species was invaded by the building of dwellings, which gave way for the outbreak of diseases on the human beings moving into those areas. Hence, malaria occurs coinciding with this occupation process in accordance to the degree of environment alteration and natural resources exploitation.
In fact, malaria remains as the major tropical disease. Furthermore it is returning to the areas from where it bi,iosa already been eradicated and its control is showing to become harder and harder to achieve on account of its ever-increasing resistance level to insecticides and drugs” Despite the fact malaria in the Amazonas had always presented high level of infection, there has been having increase in the city of Manaus, on the number of cases, mainly from the s on Figure 1.
Even inthe malaria was already considered bilosa tropical disease of highest incidence, harmful to man and economy In the Figure 1 there is the annual cases of malaria in Manaus from tomalarka three epidemics picks inand The high incidence levels are accounted by the disease endemism itself, influenced by the continuous settling and natural resources exploitation due to “disorderly” social development 12, From to Table 1it is noted malaria incidence doubled infrom 6 cases to 13 respectively.
It is emphasised that from tothere was no occurrence of malaria transmission cases within the Manaus urban area. Inwhen transmission re-established itself, malaria incidence increased rapidly, with the more predominant parasite form brought bbiliosa by the P. Comparing these data with earlier studies 14which reported malaria outbreaks usually starting in May, June or July, a shift can be observed of the starting time of the malaria outbreaks to July.
The autochthonous malaria record in Manaus in was cases in January, decreased in the following months, and only increased in October and November. Malaria incidence was atypical that year being high in the end of the year, contributing for the large number of cases recorded in the beginning of The year of was characterised by many oscillations of the incidence of malaria, yet it showed to be high throughout the year, whose lowest indexes were recorded in April, cases; October, cases, and December with cases.
The distribution of the highest levels of malaria incidence occurred in the East Zone as compared to the other Manaus City zones. In this zone itself, the neighbourhood of Jorge Teixeira was the one recorded with the largest incidence; the second largest occurrence was in the North Zone, presenting the highest incidence in the neighbourhood of Santa Etelvina.
The higher occurrence in the East and North Zones can be accounted for by the way Manaus was settled, climatic environmental conditions, keeping in mind that several factors contribute for the maintenance of the malaric incidence The Anopheles has domestic habits, yet they are not exclusive.
The “malaria houses” conditions, shaded, humid, crude, untidy, are also found in the jungle itself, which favours the house breaking of the vector We are talking about the feeding sources, the human blood, which the females fin easily.
It is the bilioxa of the least the effort the better. The different behavioural patterns of the Anopheles are in ecologically altered areas According to the type of dwelling, and if the household is still very near the wilderness the mosquito that has diurnal and nocturnal habits, facilitates the man-vector contact, and thus, more possibility of transmission.
Depending on the rhythm of occupation and urbanization process, the activity of the mosquito gets to being restricted to the nocturnal period. That, associated to the need of housing biljosa even the cultural aspect of living close to water sources, should account for the dwelling near to or on the watercourses themselves. As tostudies from already pointed out for a large increase on malaria incidence 18calling attention for a biilosa of the endemicity both in the urban and rural zones.
That period coincides with that of the settling of Jorge Teixeira Easte Zonea region that comprised large primary forest areas along with some private country sites. From on, with the incoming of a larger number of people to that location, a high degree of environmental degradation followed by a high incidence of malaria is being observed.
The number of lowincome people inhabiting alongside and on the water-courses themselves is large 9. This has brought about a wide range of environmental problems. With an emphasis on high degree of degradation that is already noted on the shorelines and in the water quality in these streams, caused by the drainage of all types of wastes and sewage waters, in addition to the alterations on the local fauna and flora.
This demonstrates the degree of technical-administrative difficulties faced by the public services responsible for the malaria control in Manaus The malaria epidemiological situation present in Manaus maoaria the period from toshowed the occurrence of two epidemics, one in and another inhaving a larger number of cases caused by Plasmodium vivax occurred in all the studied years. A relation of the environmental, cultural, social and economical factors involving climatic characteristics, natural and reconstructed environment, and city urbanization, linked to the population vulnerability configure the favourable conditions for the maintenance of the Manaus incidence of malaria.
The analysis of the malaria cases diagnosed in Manaus shows that the areas most affected by the disease malariw in the East, with the highest incidence in Jorge Teixeira, followed by the North Zones, whose highest recorded number was in Santa Etelvina. This fact must be related to the environmental, climatic characteristics, and to the way the city was occupied, which in the last years occurred with a greater intensity in these zones. They are characterised by the “disorderly” occupations, which provided the ideal environmental conditions for the biliossa and reproduction of the Anopheles, which is a vector of this disease.
Environmental alterations such as deforestation, alteration of the soil and of the watercourses. The population caused these alterations, not because they meant to cause this damage but because they had to provide themselves with the essential needs for their survival.
This has made them interfere with the environment and many times have to build on risky areas such as on slopes, valley bottoms and too close to the untouched forest and become more vulnerable to the disease. The accelerated urbanization process, which occurred in the city of Manaus, and the consequent incapacity to be followed up with the proper infrastructure and services, mainly sanitation is a factor that contributed for the malaria establishment and sustainability.
Environmental conditions also have an influence on the maintenance of the malaria vector, and the East zone was found to be where there had bee more anthropic interventions, characterised by alterations that favoured the appearance of new breeding sites for Anopheles.
In fact, the increase on the intensity of malaria is related to the natural environmental matters. It can be stressed that this element by itself is not capable of determining the maintenance of the endemicity. Como se produzem as Zonas Francas.
El envejecimiento con salud y la calidad de la vida. Foro Mundial de la Salud. Boletim amazonense de geografia. The tomorrow of malaria.
Rio de Janeiro, ; 9 ibliosa Manaus mimeo ; All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.
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